Special ritual spells

Witchcraft and sorcery has long had a special place among all peoples and nations of the world - depending on the credibility of that nation. Exploring the history of magic and witchcraft in the world is a very sensitive and very long thing. Global beliefs are so intertwined that it seems difficult and sometimes impossible to separate them. However, we know that to understand this concept, we must return to the beginning of human social life and the formation of their intellectual foundations at the beginning of history.
"Magic" should be considered a set of methods, beliefs and practices that are used by a particular group to control the natural state to achieve specific goals (which can be good or bad). The word magic in Persian means magic and sorcery, which is derived from the word "jadug" in Middle Persian. According to Henrik Samuel Nyberg (Swedish orientalist and Iranologist), the word appears in "Early Middle Persian" as "uatuk" and its ancient form is "yatuka". The first part is used in the Avesta as "yatu" meaning magic.

In Avesta, the word is attributed to a group of demons and evil spirits who did not always fight against gods and good forces. However, it should be noted that what is used in Western languages ​​to mean magic and sorcery is derived from the Greek word "mageia" or "magic", which itself is derived from the word "moghan" ( Magon, meaning the same tribe taken from the Medes who were in charge of ritual affairs in the Median period and beyond. The same word has been translated into Arabic as "Magus".


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